Rotterdam is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland.
A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe’s largest port. It has a population of 633,471 (2017).
Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers (an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities) designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel.
The Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames “Gateway to Europe” and “Gateway to the World”.
Rotterdam’ is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug (‘Erasmus Bridge’); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel (‘Willems railway tunnel’); the Willemsbrug (‘Willems Bridge’); the Koninginnebrug (‘Queen’s Bridge’); and the Van Brienenoordbrug (‘Van Brienenoord Bridge’). The former railway lift bridge De Hef (‘the Lift’) is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland (‘North Island’) and the south of Rotterdam.
The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid (‘the Head of South’, i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area.
Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or ‘Amsterdam Ordnance Datum’. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.
Satellite image of Rotterdam and its port
The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.
Hi, welcome to my travel channel! I will travel on cruise lines like MSC Cruises, Royal Caribean, Carnival Cruises, Norwegian Cruises, Costa Cruises! I will show you in detail Breakfast Lunch and Dinner Buffet and MDR restaurants, menus, specialty restaurants. I will visit the pool area kids area and in the evenings the shows in the theater. I will show you the cabins and their amenities. I will go out for excursions and visit different places, cities, islands, and landmarks.
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